The memorial for Hot Stuff and General Andrews. Previously ruled by the Danish crown, Iceland has the war to thank for its independence. • Lapland One Mexican President said it the best, “Pity poor Mexico, so far from God and so near to the United States”. Aged 49, he was a highly regarded veteran of World War I, having fought in the battle of Gallipoli and the battle of Jutland. , On the evening of 10 May, the government of Iceland issued a protest, charging that its neutrality had been "flagrantly violated" and "its independence infringed", noting that compensation would be expected for all damage done. London imposed strict export controls on Icelandic goods, preventing profitable shipments to Germany, as part of its naval blockade. 255 children were born from these liaisons, the ástandsbörn, 'children of the situation'. Footage of Iceland in November 1941 to early spring 1942.  The offices of Landssími Íslands (state telecommunication service), RÚV (broadcasting service), and the Meteorological Office were quickly occupied by the British to prevent news of the invasion from reaching Berlin. • Market Garden  Additionally, security had been compromised by a dispatch uncoded and by the time the troops arrived in Greenock, many people[who?] In May 1941, the German battleship Bismarck sank the British ship Hood off coast of the Westfjords.  There was a shortage of weapons, which consisted only of rifles, pistols, and bayonets, while 50 of the marines had only just received their rifles and had not had a chance to fire them. Well…I’m not sure if you quite grasp the relationship Iceland had with their invaders. See more ideas about wwii, iceland, world war ii. The NID also expected resistance from the Reykjavík police, consisting of some 60 armed men. During 1918, after a long period of Danish rule, Iceland had become an independent state in personal union with the Danish king and with common foreign affairs. The Occupation of Iceland During World War II - Includes a Timeline of Events before and during the occupation - located here. On 17 June 1944, Iceland dissolved its union with Denmark and the Danish monarchy and declared itself a republic. On May 10 1940 British troops arrived in Reykjavík, occupying Iceland to ensure the Third Reich, which had only a month earlier occupied Denmark, would not attempt to establish bases in the Iceland. • Indonesian National Revolution. Apr 27, 2016 - Explore Eve Online's board "WW2 -Iceland" on Pinterest. When modern observers think about World War II, it is hardly likely Iceland comes to mind. The Chief of the Capital Police Forces, Agnar Kofoed-Hansen, started to train the National Defence forces in early 1940. Until then, the Third Reich’s interests with Iceland started with friendly soccer competitions and visits in the summer of 1938 with gliders and an airplane. • Kuril Islands Churchill maintained that if further negotiations with the Icelandic government were attempted, the Germans might learn of them and act first. Just as importantly, the British were eager to obtain bases in Iceland for themselves to strengthen their Northern Patrol. • Western Ukraine ^ Walling, Michael G. (author). Posted on July 12, 2017 by 24. This number equaled 25% of Iceland’s population and 50% of … • Gothic Line On 7 July 1941, the defence of Iceland was transferred from Britain to the United States. • Leyte Two were in Iceland for a time. On August 27, 1941, U-boat U-570, captained by Kapitanleutnant Hans-Joachim Rahmlow, surfaced off the coast of Iceland.Almost immediately, it was spotted by James Thompson, the acting leader of a British squadron based in Iceland who was on an anti-submarine patrol.Immediately, Rahmlow ordered a crash dive, but it was too late. World War II Crash Sites in Iceland. Werner Gerlach, the German consul, was also alerted to the aircraft. The following script was taken from a letter my late father sent to an Icelandic gentleman in June 1999. This museum is an education about the part the British and Americans played in Iceland during World War II. The War Cabinet approved the plan. • Changsha  The British discovered a fire upstairs in the building and found a pile of documents burning in the consul's bathtub. The invasion took place because the British government feared that Iceland would be used by the Germans, who had recently overrun Denmark, which was in personal union with Iceland and which had previously been largely responsible for Iceland's foreign policy.  He then hastened to report to the Prime Minister, who ordered him not to interfere with the British troops and to try to prevent conflicts between them and Icelanders. But that does not suggest Iceland’s role in World War II is any less interesting and bittersweet • Operation Keelhaul This number equaled 25% of Iceland’s population and 50% of its total male population. On the eve of World War II there was little industry and -- other than a small police establishment -- no armed forces whatsoever.  Seeing that the approaching fleet was about to violate Icelandic neutrality in two ways, Arnalds began to investigate. On 7 July 1941, the defence of Iceland was transferred from Britain to the United States. • Blitzkrieg Forgotten Sacrifice: The Arctic Convoys of World War II. If by chance a Danish patrol vessel were present in Reykjavík, the Danish sailors might assist the defenders.  Despite reasonably good weather, many of the marines developed severe seasickness. Login with Gmail. WW2 US soldiers warned of local rules in Northern Ireland The first American GIs to reach Europe during WWII landed in Ireland 75 years ago today. The Government of Iceland issued a protest, charging that its neutrality had been "flagrantly violated" and "its independence infringed". Hvalfjord was during WWII the main navy base for the allies in The North Atlantic and the stop over for the convoys which sailed between America, Europe and specially Russia. One unfortunate marine committed suicide. Iceland officially remained neutral throughout World War II. Within the Military War Diaries for the period 1940 – 1941, which were studied for the purpose of this history, there were various documents, such as the Operational Orders on the Defence of Iceland, which made reference to the strategic considerations which had lead the United Kingdom to invade the island. Today we celebrate the following holidays: During World War II, fearing a German invasion of Iceland, Britain stationed troops in Iceland. Read Wikipedia in Modernized UI. Any aeroplanes from such ships were forbidden from flying over neutral territorial waters.  Prime Minister of Iceland Hermann Jónasson was alerted about the aircraft, as were the Icelandic Police. Many Icelandic women married Allied soldiers and subsequently gave birth to children, many of whom bore the patronymic Hansson (hans translates as "his" in Icelandic), which was used because the father was unknown or had left the country. • Hong Kong Following the invasion of Denmark on 9 April 1940 Iceland opened a legation in New York City. , On 9 April 1940, German forces began Operation Weserübung, invading both Norway and Denmark. • Hungary Iceland during World War II The war and its impact on the country. , Meanwhile, marines on Berwick were being ordered aboard Fearless, which would take them to the harbour. He then threw it back to the marine and told him to be careful with it. he asked. The military operation codenamed Operation Fork was conducted by the Royal Navy and Royal Marines.In time, some of the British garrison was replaced by Canadian and later American forces, despite the fact that the United States was not yet in the war. No Comments.  He was accompanied by a small intelligence detachment commanded by Major Humphrey Quill and a diplomatic mission managed by Charles Howard Smith. Visit Reyðarfjörður, in Eastern Iceland. • Korsun–Cherkassy • Soviet Union (Barbarossa) Iceland had 40.000 horses in 1940, & the one RAF base at Faeroes had a dirt strip & had little success against the Luftwaffe. During the German occupation of Denmark, contact between the countries was disrupted. , On 3 May 1940, the 2nd Royal Marine Battalion in Bisley, Surrey received orders from London to be ready to move at two hours' notice for an unknown destination. • Iraq When war began, Denmark and Iceland declared neutrality and limited visits to the island by military vessels and aircraft of the belligerents.. • Surrender of Germany Login with Facebook Consul Gerlach opened, protested against the invasion, and reminded the British that Iceland was a neutral country. FBI is a shortening for Forgotten Bastards of Iceland. A number of German civilians and technicians were made prisoners and transported back to the United Kingdom. Over the weekend hikers walking on the beach on Starmýrartangi cape by Álftafjörður bay found a WWII naval mine. • Philippines (1944–1945), • Vistula–Oder 1.1K likes. On 10 February 1944, German Focke-Wulf Fw 200 Condor from the I./KG 40, stationed in Norway, sank the British tanker SS El Grillo at Seyðisfjörður.. The initial force of 746 British Royal Marines commanded by Colonel Robert Sturges was replaced on 17 May by a larger Army force, and eventually 25,000 British troops were stationed in Iceland. See more ideas about iceland, ww2, wwii. London imposed strict export controls on Icelandic goods, preventing profitable shipments to Germany, as part of its naval blockade. Both closed within a year, after investigations determined that most liaisons were consensual.  A small crowd had assembled, including several policemen still waiting for the customs boat. • Italy (Spring 1945) "Would you mind ... getting the crowd to stand back a bit, so that the soldiers can get off the destroyer?" World War II Crash Sites in Iceland. After failing to persuade the Icelandic government to join the Allies, the UK invaded on the morning of 10 May 1940. Icelanders were and remain divided about the war and occupation – what is sometimes referred to as "blessað stríðið" or "the Blessed War". Apparently the reason Britain moved so quickly to occupy Iceland was that some information had come out of... To Iceland: One Man's Experiences in 1940. Though there was a nucleus of active service officers, the troops were new recruits and only partially trained. Iceland cooperated with the British and then the Americans, but officially remained neutral throughout World War II. In fact, 1,200 Icelanders fought in the trenches of World War I. THE BACKGROUND TO THE OCCUPATION OF ICELAND. • Project Hula Eskifjörður is a small town and port in Eastern Iceland, with 1100 inhabitants and has been a place of trade and exchange since 1789. A year later the British troops were replaced with American forces. Boarding commenced but was fraught with problems and delays. , The expedition was organised hastily and haphazardly. In 1944 British Naval Intelligence built a group of five Marconi wireless direction finding stations on the coast west of Reykjavík. Fearing that Germany might use Iceland as a base for U-boats and… Us Armor Military Vehicles Ww2 • Lithuania • Ichi-Go Iceland officially remained neutral throughout World War II. German interest in Iceland in the 1930s grew from nothing at all to proportions found by the British government to be alarming. Iceland's reliance on the sea, to provide nourishment and for trade, resulted in significant loss of life. • Comparative military ranks Arriving at the consulate, the British troops were relieved to find no sign of resistance and simply knocked on the door. The Third Reich's overtures began with friendly competition between German and Icelandic football teams. PREFACE The histories of World War II that I have read had very little to say about the American occupation of Iceland from 1941 to 1945. The initial force of 746 Royal Marines commanded by Colonel Robert Sturges disembarked at the capital Reykjavík. • Berlin Lastly, troops would be sent by land to the harbour at Akureyri and the landing ground at Melgerði in the north of the country. Iceland was invited to join the UK in the war "as a belligerent and an ally." • Lend-Lease A local volunteer gave us a great tour of this museum. On April 9, 1940, German troops invaded the country and quickly occupied Oslo, Bergen, Trondheim, and Narvik. The acting chief of police, Einar Arnalds, surmised that it most likely originated from a British warship bringing the expected new ambassador.  The voyage was uneventful otherwise.. During the occupation, on 17 June 1944, Iceland declared itself a republic.  Many were upset that the foreign troops were "taking away" women, friends, and family. The first Icelandic Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) personnel were trained in 1942 by the British Royal Navy to help deal with the problem. One Icelander snatched a rifle from a marine and stuffed a cigarette in it. • • Baltic States destroyers' sound gear and one submarine was attacked "under favorable circumstances." When the war in Europe began in 1939, Denmark's declaration of neutrality applied to Iceland as well. , On 6 May, Force Sturges boarded trains for Greenock on the Firth of Clyde. knew that the destination was Iceland. During the war, drifting mines became a serious problem for Icelanders as well as the Allied forces. The British consul had received advance notice of the invasion and was waiting with his associates to assist the troops when they arrived.  They lacked searchlights, communication equipment, and gun directors. • Yugoslav Front However, the British invaded Iceland on 10 May 1940. A new book in English on Iceland in World War II has just hit the shelves in Iceland. Several took part in major landings, including Normandy, Sicily and Italy. • Bagration • Shumshu, • Attacks on North America DECISION TO LAND UNITED STATES FORCES IN ICELAND, 1941. by Byron Fairchild (See information on author appended to end of this file.) Screenshot from the Periscope Film LLC archive video, see below. • • Romania Suspecting what was about to happen, he drove down to the harbour with a German associate. On 4 May, the battalion received some modest additional equipment in the form of Bren light machine guns, anti-tank guns, and 2-inch mortars (51 mm). In July 1941, five months before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the first American task force of World War II departed for Iceland. ISBN 978-1-4728-1110-3. Toggle Navigation. , The Fearless started disembarking immediately once it docked. Famous actors who served in World War II . • Philippines , On the morning of 7 May, the force headed to the harbour in Greenock, where they found the cruisers Berwick and Glasgow, which they decided to take to Iceland. • Finland World War II review in Iceland and The North Atlant. Meeting no resistance, the troops moved quickly to disable communication networks, secure strategic locations, and arrest German citizens. The 1st Marine Brigade consisting of approximately 4,100 troops garrisoned Iceland until early 1942 when they were replaced by U.S. Army troops, so they could join their fellow Marines fighting in the Pacific. Search. , The British forces began their operations in Reykjavík by posting a guard at the post office and attaching a flyer to the door. On 17 May, 4,000 additional troops of the Canadian Army arrived to relieve the marines. An officer arrived to scold the marine. 135 Views.  One of the newly recruited marines committed suicide en route. They felt that this would constitute an intolerable threat to British control of the North Atlantic. , With Operation Valentine on 12 April 1940, the British occupied the Faroe Islands. In May 1940 we transported Royal Marines to Iceland and the island was occupied on the 10th May to prevent the occupation by a German force. May 14, 2020 - Explore Philip Barnett's board "Iceland & Greenland in WWII", followed by 1060 people on Pinterest. The British promised compensation, favourable business agreements, non-interference in Icelandic affairs, and the withdrawal of all forces at the end of the war. At the beginning of World War II, Iceland was a sovereign kingdom in personal union with Denmark, with King Christian X as head of state. , Assisting arms provided to the force consisted of two 3.7 inch mountain howitzers, four QF 2 pounder naval guns, and two 4-inch coastal defence guns. This did not happen for decades, and a substantial US military presence remained in Iceland until 30 September 2006. • Manchuria Old timesA busy corner in Reykjavík during the World War II.  After a few failed attempts at persuading the Icelandic government by diplomatic means to join the Allies and becoming a co-belligerent in the war against the Axis forces, the British invaded Iceland on 10 May 1940. , At 03:40, an Icelandic policeman saw a small fleet of warships approaching the harbour, but could not discern their nationality. • Iran , After the British invasion, the Germans composed a report to examine the feasibility of seizing Iceland, proposed as Operation Ikarus. On the same day, the British government sent a message to the Icelandic government, stating that the UK was willing to assist Iceland in maintaining its independence but would require facilities in Iceland to do so. The Occupation of Iceland during World War II began with a British invasion intent on occupying and denying Iceland to Germany. In 1941, the Icelandic Minister of the Judiciary investigated "The Situation", and the police tracked 500+ women who had been having sex with the soldiers. The British were also worried that the Germans might airlift troops, as they had done with great success in their Norwegian Campaign. • Total war • Morgenthau Plan  Much of the operational planning was conducted en route. Mel Brooks – Corporal in the 1104 Engineer Combat Battalion 78 Infantry Division. However, the British invaded Iceland on 10 May 1940.  The guns were manned by troops from the artillery divisions of the Navy and the marines, none of whom had ever fired them. , Meanwhile, high priority was assigned to the capture of the German consulate. In addition, a German invasion force might already be prepared or begun immediately after the British landings. From 1918 until 1944 Iceland was self-governing, but the Danish King was Head of State of both Denmark and Iceland. • Tempest Few years ago a war museum opened in Hvalfjord, Iceland. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, Military history of Iceland during World War II, Iceland dissolved its union with Denmark and the Danish monarchy, Military operations in Scandinavia and Iceland during World War II, http://stonebooks.com/history/iceland.shtml, http://sonic.net/~bstone/history/iceland.shtml, http://www.lhg.is/starfsemi/adgerdasvid/sprengjusveit/icelandic_eod/, Search and Clearance of Explosive Ordnance from SS El Grillo, "Decision to Land United States Forces in Iceland, 1941", United States Army Center of Military History, http://www.history.army.mil/books/70-7_03.htm, History of World War II by region and country, Sarawak, Brunei, Labuan, and British North Borneo, Finnish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, German prisoners of war in the United States, Italian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Japanese prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Japanese prisoners of war in World War II, Polish prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, Romanian prisoners of war in the Soviet Union, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Iceland_in_World_War_II?oldid=2664938, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls. Read Wikipedia in Modernized UI. • Soviet occupations Soldiers had found them themselves forgotten in Iceland. Keflavik IcelandAir Force DayBeautiful … Iceland in WW2. From Iceland — British Naval Mine Found Off Coast Of Iceland A British naval mine, believed to be from WW2, was found off the coast of east Iceland last Saturday. 6 Bomber Plane Captures U-Boat. Review of War and Peace Museum.  At this time, Iceland possessed no aeroplanes of its own, so this unusual event awoke and alerted a number of people. Here are images and objects from my collection and others. They extinguished the fire and salvaged a substantial number of records. It’s titled Iceland in World War II: A Blessed War, by G. Jökull Gíslason.. When war began, Denmark and Iceland declared neutrality and ended visits to the island by military vessels and aircraft of the belligerents. Except for losing over 200 Icelandic seamen on sea falling victim to attacks of Nazi German submarines. • Syrmian Front 80-G-27397 (21832428479).jpg 2,984 × 2,400; 2.52 MB. Iceland had 40.000 horses in 1940, & the one RAF base at Faeroes had a dirt strip & had little success against the Luftwaffe. Britain had imposed trade restrictions on Iceland to prevent free trade with Germany, and on May 10, 1940, Operation Fork went into effect, the British invasion and occupation of Iceland, preempting the Germans from doing so first. In the following days, air defence equipment was deployed in Reykjavík and a detachment of troops sent to Akureyri. In July, elements of the 2nd Canadian Division and 3rd Canadian Division were landed. • West Hunan The cruisers were not designed to transport a force of the size assigned to them, and conditions were cramped. Local Germans, who were thought to have some arms, might resist or even attempt some sort of coup. The newly born Kingdom of Iceland declared itself a neutral country without a defence force. • Ardennes The Occupation of Iceland during World War II began with a British invasion intent on occupying and denying Iceland to Germany. During World War II, the Allies devised a strategy known as island hopping, moving from island to island, using each as a base for capturing the next. Visit Reyðarfjörður, in Eastern Iceland. The military operation codenamed Operation Fork was conducted by the Royal Navy and Royal Marines.In time, some of the British garrison was replaced by Canadian and later American forces, despite the fact that the United States was not yet in the war. The Luftwaffe in Spain was up and running in 1 day, He 115 planes were assembled & operated without hangars in 1 day. Initial British targets for the 1940 Invasion of Iceland: Reykjavík along with its harbour and seaplane landing site (Vatnagarðar), nearby landing grounds at Sandskeið and Kaldaðarnes to the east, the nearby anchorage at Hvalfjörður to the north, the harbour at Akureyri in the far north and the nearby landing grounds at Melgerði.  Excluding those, the invasion force consisted of 746 troops.  By 1928, all Icelandic political parties were in agreement that the union treaty would be terminated as soon as possible. number 34, The United States Marines in Iceland, 1941—1942, published and last reviewed in 1962, by the Historical Branch, G-3 Division, Headquarters, U. S. Marine Corps. • Belgrade • Kiev Welcome to the website about World War II in Iceland. In April 1940 Denmark was invaded and quickly overrun by Germany. Iceland was founded more than 1,000 years ago during the Viking age of exploration and settled by a mixed Norse and Celtic population. The report found that while an invasion could be successful, maintaining supply lines would be too costly and the benefits of holding Iceland would not outweigh the costs (there was, for instance, insufficient infrastructure for aircraft in Iceland). Many had distinguished careers, military intelligence, paras, navy, air force. Arrival of US troops in Iceland in January 1942. With no time to spare, zeroing of the weapons and initial familiarisation shooting would have to be conducted at sea. ", "Decision to Land United States Forces in Iceland, 1941", "Franklin D. Roosevelt's message to Congress on the US occupation of Iceland", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Invasion_of_Iceland&oldid=996573204, Iceland–United Kingdom military relations, Military history of Iceland during World War II, World War II operations of the Western European Theatre, Military history of Canada during World War II, Battles and operations of World War II involving the United Kingdom, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2019, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2018, Articles needing additional references from May 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Icelandic-language text, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 12:10. U.S. forces grew considerably after the US joined the war on 7 December 1941, reaching as many as 30,000 army, navy and air force personnel at any one time. Reviewed April 27, 2017 . • Tannenberg Line  At the end of hostilities most British facilities were given to the Icelandic government.  This concern was needless, as the only Danish naval vessels abroad were in Greenland. Although Iceland was not directly involved in the war, as the Danes—who ruled Iceland at the time—remained neutral, hundreds of Icelanders actually fought in the war. Toggle Navigation. These troops were ultimately replaced by American troops who protected Iceland from German invasion. He contacted the foreign ministry, which confirmed that he should go out to the fleet and announce to its commander that he was in violation of Icelandic neutrality. The Naval Intelligence Division believed the Germans were actually reserve crews for the German submarines they thought were operating out of Iceland. • Manila They were accompanied by an anti-submarine escort consisting of the destroyers Fearless and Fortune. In the first place, he wanted to prevent "anyone else" from coming there; and, in the second place, he also wanted to use Iceland as an air base for the protection of our submarines operating in that area".  Down at the harbour, he viewed the ships for himself and decided they were probably British. They were so-called Western Icelanders, Icelandic immigrants in North America, who mostly enlisted for Canada. In 1918, after a long period of Danish rule, Iceland had become an independent state in personal union with Denmark and with common handling of foreign affairs. Commonwealth occupation forces eventually totalled 25,000 infantry with elements from the Royal Air Force, Royal Navy and Royal Canadian Navy. Reviewed September 6, 2015 . The local news site visir.is reports that the mine was quickly identified as probably being of British origin, and believed to contain explosives equivalent to 225 kg (500 pounds) of TNT.. Some children born as a result of the Ástandið have English surnames.  To guard against a German counterattack by sea, they would secure the harbour and send troops by land to nearby Hvalfjörður. There was, however, German interest in seizing Iceland. Iceland, however, unlike Norway, did not closely enforce limitations within its territorial waters and even slashed funding for the Icelandic Coast Guard. Following the Danish … The invasion of Iceland (codenamed Operation Fork) by the Royal Navy and Royal Marines occurred on 10 May 1940, during World War II. Foreign troop numbers in some years equalled 25 percent of the population or almost 50 percent of the native male population.  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